5 and 6.
How many circles are there in the Single tube eye and what makes it so
outstanding compared to other eyes.
The Single tube eye was first discovered back in the sixties by me and
has in its short existence proved to be a major break away from the
tried and true eye's of the old Masters.
At first these eyes I'm sure were discarded by many because of the
washed out looking appearance of them.
But in my travels looking at birds which had performed far above the
norm, I began to realize that this kind of eye was to be found in some
truly remarkable birds.
To this day they are still among the most sought after of all eyes and
for very obvious reasons. Reliability. They deliver the goods,
especially in the harder or tougher smash races.
The one thing that distinguishes them from the rest is the absence of
the underlying clear jell like tube in the base of the Iris.
The single tube eye does not display this underlying tube but instead,
shows only the top tube which is the blood filled tube that carries
blood to the eye which in turn warms and activates the eye.
If you look closely at the inner dual circle area of the iris, you can
often see, by looking between the gaps of the loosely arranged pattern
of the two tubes, each tube quite clearly displayed one on top of the
other with the top tube being the only one in which blood is carried to
the eye. Why this is so and what the second tube is filled with is
unknown. But, when the underlying tube is missing from the eye, then
that is a Single Tube eye.
Like all things in this subject, they are easy to recognize with
Speed lines, if not the faster birds then what do they signify.
Speed lines were first described by a friend of mine who worked for the
British Homing World. His job was to travel around England and Europe
photographing the eyes and birds of distinction. He was at one time
regarded by many as the best in his field and I still use many of his
photographs in my seminars. He concluded that the faster birds could be
recognized by these lines which radiate out from the center of the eye
like spokes in a wheel. Unfortunately he was wrong. His findings were
published in the press and eventually became accepted as being true and
accurate through comparisons made with the winningest birds around at
So why was he wrong?
Most experienced pigeon flyers will agree that not all birds can handle
the higher velocities reached in many races throughout a season. These
are commonly called, Blow Homes.
Often these entail speeds of 100+ MPH. Although we do not know for sure
why this is it has been suggested that they are ill equipped for the
task in some way or, that they are just plain scarred by the experience.
The simple truth is that, we don't know for sure why this is but, this
doesn't explain why there are certain birds which do show a REPETITIVE
ability to do just that.
It was in such birds as these that the speed lines were first discovered
and, misinterpreted as signifying the faster birds. They are NOT faster
birds but, are the ones with the ability to handle the higher velocities
and any claims to the contrary as FALSE.
The final conclusion is that speed lines can be used as an indicator of
the bird with an ability to handle the higher velocities reached in blow
homes but. DON'T BET THE FARM ON IT. It is not all that accurate of a
At weaning time, the pigeon man has nothing he can use to determine the
true capabilities of his newly raised team except the race basket. The
average healthy pigeon looks exactly like the rest and gives little
indication that it just might be the elusive Champion we all dream about
one day owning.
These birds are born almost annually on a regular basis. They are
unbeatable and win out of turn under almost any conditions and
management systems. Over the years I have made it a point to pay special
attention to these birds in an attempt to find out exactly what it is
that makes them so different with athletic abilities far and above those
of the normal racing pigeon. I have never did discover why they are what
they are however, I have discovered that they do share certain eye
features. The following is the result of my studies of them over the
last 40 years or so.
I know of at least 17 of these eye features but of these only five will
regularly be found in the eyes of true Champions and most of these can
be clearly seen at the very young age of one month old.
This is just another way in which the eye-sign man can find himself with
a slight advantage over his fellow competitors. In the order of outright
value and importance, I shall list them accordingly.
No 1 Clusters.
No 2 Drifting pigment in the pupil.
No 3 Smudges and or wires in the eye.
No 4 Combine eye style racing composition.
No 5 A flat enameled looking Iris.
Though there are many more signs that depict racing ability, these are
the most reliable and by far the most significant pointers to any
pending Champion. Taking them in that order, I shall tell you more
about each one in turn.
The Cluster. I believe I have said enough about these eyes in the past
and that they need no further explanation at this point in time. The
same applies to the next on the list which is the same eye as the
Cluster but in a different stage of development.
No 3 Smudges and wire is another thing all together. This is best seen
on the Van Breeman site in the eye picture of the bird called KEISER. If
you look closely at this eye, you can see that there are dark lines
appearing beneath the iris which runs from the inside of the eye near
the pupil, out toward the outer edge like spokes in a wheel. These are
called smudges and wires. Some times they can be found in large numbers
in the eye and on other occasions there are only one or two lines
visible. Keisers eye contains several thin lines and these are spread
around the eye in various locations. The locations where they are found
have no bearing on the birdís value. These lines also come in another
form which is more like a wider dark area beneath the iris and looks
more like a dark patch or blob located under the iris and is covered by
the pigment of the eye together with the capillaries which form the
colored part of the iris.
No 4. This is another of my own discoveries and is called the Combine
eye. Its existence was first divulged on this site less than two years
ago and since then, I have had literally hundreds of them reported to me
from around the world. Where the pigment on the eye-sign ring can be
seen to end or stop cleanly and abruptly, and NOT fade away gradually as
in the normal eye, this bird will usually be a combine winner for you.
There are 19 of them amongst the eyes on the Van Breeman site, can you
No 5. The iris of the flying Champion is usually a flat looking iris
which looks as if it is made up of many coats of paint as it were. You
could even be excused for describing it as being flat and unimpressive.
Not quite washed out looking but not far from it. SEE KEISER AGAIN.
This is the eye of the that fools most eye-sign men and often turns out
to be another discovery of mine I called the Single Tube eye, which
though it has been described before, shall be discussed in detail at a
later time when I am able to post pictures of some with my new scanner
which is supposed to be especially made for this purpose?????
I will also explain why this eye is listed as being No 5 in order of
value as a flyer, despite its reputation as being a smash race winner.
The somewhat brief explanations of the eyes were not originally intended
but, I felt I could not in all fairness just post the answers without
some kind of explanation of each. I am sorry for the long windedness of
I trust you enjoy them and gain some more insight into this subject.
Why don't Champions produce champions equal to or better than
Hardly an eye-sign question but that any eye-sign man should know the
answer to. Why? Because we will never know the reason if you don't know
the question. And the only answers so far to this problem have come
from the study of the eyes of Champions.
I don't intend to go over all the reasons again why this problem exists
but, these FREAKS of nature are quite famous for failing miserably when
put to stock.
Two Champions mated together DO NOT PRODUCE OTHER CHAMPIONS.
The reasons have been discussed in the past postings so enough said at
The point is that by studying the eyes of these birds when ever you get
the chance, will teach you the signs that are common in them and this is
where the key to their reproduction may well lie in the future.
10 and 11.
HOW MANY WAYS ARE THERE TO DETERMINE IF A BIRD REALLY DOES HAVE A
DOMINANT VIOLET EYE.
There are three ways to determine a Dominant Violet Eye.
These are 1. Recognition by examination. (in other words, by looking at
it and recognizing it accordingly)
No 2. By discovering the phenomenal breeding record of the suspect. It
is not unusual to hear about them producing 20 and 30 individual
No 3. By examining the multitude of other colored eyes produced from the
Question No 12 and 13.
How many different kinds of Green eyes are there?
The green eye comes to us in two basic types. The DOMINANT and the
But to save time space and confusion, I shall also include the answer to
question No 13 at the same time by saying that they also come in the
RACING, BREEDING and DUAL PURPOSE categories as do the afore mentioned
16, 17 and 18.
different kinds of Clusters are there?
The thing that distinguishes one kind of Cluster from another is the
"PIGMENT" which forms it. If you look closely at this pigment in any
eye, you will see that it resembles tiny bead like particles. These
beads come in three different sizes and make up the basic color of the
eye. Example, Pearl (from the grey beads) or yellow from the yellow
beads. This pigment is found throughout the whole eye commencing at the
pupil and covering the eye-sign circle then extending as a "BASE"
covering of the sphincter shaped Cilliary muscle, from the edge of the
pupil to the outer edge of the eye.
The entire iris is built on this base which in coloured eye's, is
covered with this same pigment which is also responsible for the
formation of almost all the other features we see in the eye's. If you
look closely you will also notice that the pigmented beads are
positioned on the base in a deliberate order of three individual layers,
one atop of the other. This order being, the smallest of the beads are
at the bottom of the laters, followed by the next or middle sized beads,
and finally the larger of them being on the top or, the outer surface of
the coloured areas.
To the lay person this information may seem boring and insignificant
however, rest assured, as your knowledge of the subject grows, you will
soon realize that it is of paramount importance to know these things and
especially when selecting a mate for the bird in question?????????????
Therefore, to answer the original question which was? How many
different kinds of Clusters are there?
Let's look at a breakdown of the possibilities.
NO 1 Being. The Cluster which is comprised of all and only LARGE beads,
which resemble small grains of sand or salt in the pupil.
No 2 Comprised of all small beads. (Appearing like fine powder and even
a misty effect in the pupil)
No 3 Comprised of only the middle sized beads. (Talcum powder size
beads) but still quite visible.
No 4 The Cluster which is comprised of beads of all three sizes.
No 5 Finally, the one made up of only two sizes of beads of which there
are 3 possibilities?
The percentages of each in the makeup do not seem to be of any
So the answer to the original question is. There are basically 7
different kinds of Clusters depending on their makeup.
Finally on this same question. Which is the most prepotent Cluster as a
breeder or flyer?
The simple truth is that they are all as prepotent as each other. There
is no such thing as a dominant Cluster or a positive or negative Cluster
or even a male and female Cluster.
But not all Clusters succeed as promised, and these are the ones, which
have been mated INCORRECTLY. There is a right and wrong way to do this,
which has been covered before and can be found in the archives on this
Question No 22.
Does light enter the eye through the iris proper.
Who cares? ha ha ha
But in all truth. NO IT DOESN'T. It isn't known if the cilliary body
(that's the brown base you see in the bull eye which is completely
without pigment covering it) is responsible for the constant changing
size of the aperture of the pupil, or the retina at the back of the eye.
However, which ever it is, it most certainly isn't the pigment in the
iris that causes the changes.
Perhaps the light sensitive cells that do cause it are to be found on
the surface of cilliary body itself, it certainly looks that way when
you watch it under a scope as light is played onto it? I DON'T KNOW AND
WILL NOT GUESS OR SPECULATE but, neither does anyone else in the
Fortunately, it isn't of much importance to the eye-sign exponent so
don't be overly concerned.
There is one thing for sure though. If you could scrape away the pigment
from within an eye, you would find as I did and have many times, that as
soon as the pigment is removed, the eye then changes to being nothing
more than a plain old every day BULL EYE???
And that's the "only" difference between them and the ordinary pigmented
eye or colored eye. The presence of pigment.
Please, don't let anyone try to tell you that the bull eye is faulty or
that the birds with them cannot see properly. They can see just as well
as any other eye. Either in the dark or the brightest day.
I have had them come in the dark throughout the night many times, and
won blow homes and hard races with bull eyed birds, not to mention that
one of the best stock birds I ever owned also had a bull eye.
I have reached a point now that pictures are a must from here on out so.
When the new kind of scanner arrives this week, hopefully I will be able
to post some interesting pictures which demonstrate all the things I
have talked about perfectly, and also the pictures of the eye of a
double 500 mile L/A Combine winner owned by Lawrence Bauber of the
Disneyland Lofts, which shows very clearly the TWO LAYERS of blood veins
and capillaries that make up the iris proper.
Unfortunately this picture also blows away Bill Richardsonís theory of
the eye heart cooling thing which it wasn't intended to do but, O
Well??? The truth will prevail.
Those at the seminar saw these pictures for the first time but, now you
will all see them as promised together with the single tube eyes.
I am throwing this answer in because it is so quick and easy that and
any real eye-sign man would have known it in a heart beat.
What do the Greens and Violets have in common?
There are in fact two answers to this question both of which are
The first of these is that they both share a common ancestor.
The second being that, you cannot breed one without the use of the
In other words. It's like the words of the old Sinatra song. Love and
Marriage. You can't have one without the......other. And if you think
you can, youíre only fooling yourself.
The third thing they have in common is that they are both at the "TOP"
of the ladder when it comes to breeding better pigeons.
BECAUSE THEY ARE IN COMPLETE "CONTRAST" TO ALL THE OTHER COLOURS OF
EYE'S FOUND IN OUR BIRDS.
Name three families that were recognizable by their eye colors.
Sions. Janssens. Bricoux. Jan Ardens. Hanssenes. Gurnays. Jurions.
Beckearts. Devrendts. Puttries.
Answer to No 25.
What is the significance of the Circle of Adaptation and what does its
This eye feature is probably the second most controversial feature to be
found in the entire subject. Many people actually mistake this circle
for being the circle of eye-sign, and I have met several well known
pigeon people who are convinced that Bishop was talking about this
circle when he discussed the circle of eye-sign??? Of course when asked,
these same people admitted that they had never read Bishop and that ends
So just to dispel any more thoughts in this direction, let's look at
what the circle of adaptation really is. I have discussed earlier how
the Iris is formed on a base which, when seen to be void of pigment is
nothing more than the same brown or black base seen in the bull eye.
This base is in fact the cilliary muscle itself and, if you take the
trouble to look at the photos featured on the Bill Richardsonís who
calls himself the (book) site. You can see quite clearly in the side
view of the eye how and what this base really is. It is simply the
thinnest part of the cilliary muscle which expands and contracts around
the cornea or (lens) of the eye, forming the outer edge of the pupil.
As was once described on this site, this part of the muscle acts like a
flange around the Cornea. On occasions, this flange can be seen to
crinkle up as it is required to dilate and take on the appearance like a
bottle cap effect surrounding the pupil.
Again I say with authority. There is no evidence to support and claims
that a bird with eyes that dilate down to a pin point are superior in
ANY WAY to the birds that only dilate normally. Some would have you
believe that the birds with the pin point pupils have superior vision to
those that don't. THIS IS FALSE INFORMATION and is based on the
incorrect understanding that eye-sign has something to do with vision.
EYE-SIGN HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH VISION. With the exception of the brief
period when the eye takes on it's colored appearance from young to
adult, A pigeon with poor vision is a very rare thing and any claims to
the contrary are stupid. Always consider the source of such ridiculous
On other occasions, this same thin wrinkled inner section of the muscle
can actually break off at say the 10 O-clock position, through to the 2
0 clock position, and hang down across the pupil appearing like a
curtain hanging there. I have seen it break free at one point only and
tear around as far as half way around the pupil then, hang into the
pupil looking like a dark colored worm or whatever in the pupil.
The circle becomes more obvious as the bird ages and is best seen in the
bull eye. So what does it's presence denote when found in the eye. In a
simple word.....N O T H I N G.
There is and never has been any evidence to suggest that only birds with
this circle displayed are capable of anything that birds without it are
not capable of. This includes breeding ability Racing ability or either
in the same bird.
I have seen many thousands of birds with this feature, many of which
were excellent birds BUT. I have also seen JUST AS MANY good birds
WITHOUT IT. It is not, nor ever was an EXCLUSIVE feature to good birds
only as has been stated on here by some one who has difficulty knowing
what day it is.
The circle of Adaptation only ever gets a mention by those who know
better because in some birds it's there but, its presence means NOTHING.
The same applies to the bottle cap effect that it SOMETIMES takes on
and, the splitting into sections of it in older birds, or the breaking
off of it etc like I have just described.
The birdís vision is NOT impaired when this breaking off and or
splitting into segments occur.
What ever this inner portion of the cilliary muscle does is MEANINGLESS.
And you can take that to the bank.
MY ADVISE IS TO IGNORE IT COMPLETELY.
This is the final answer to the 25 EYE-SIGN questions I posted and I
wish to point out that that despite my invitation to ALL (AND ESPECIALLY
ONE) professed eye-sign men to jump in and answer any of them. NO ONE
RESPONDED. Now you can decide for your selves as to why but, I think I
know??? And the beat goes on.
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